A Science of Operations: Machines, Logic and the Invention of Programming (History of Computing)
The s saw the development of the first wide-area computer networks WANs and protocols for transferring information at high speeds between computers separated by large distances. As these activities evolved, they coalesced into the computer science field called networking and communications.
computer science | Definition, Fields, & Facts | kindsynjibestdeft.ml
A major accomplishment of this field was the development of the Internet. These discoveries were the origin of the computer science field known as algorithms and complexity. A key part of this field is the study and application of data structures that are appropriate to different applications. Data structures, along with the development of optimal algorithms for inserting, deleting, and locating data in such structures, are a major concern of computer scientists because they are so heavily used in computer software, most notably in compilers, operating systems, file systems, and search engines.
A brief history of computers
In the s the invention of magnetic disk storage provided rapid access to data located at an arbitrary place on the disk. This invention led not only to more cleverly designed file systems but also to the development of database and information retrieval systems, which later became essential for storing, retrieving, and transmitting large amounts and wide varieties of data across the Internet. This field of computer science is known as information management. Another long-term goal of computer science research is the creation of computing machines and robotic devices that can carry out tasks that are typically thought of as requiring human intelligence.
Such tasks include moving, seeing, hearing, speaking, understanding natural language, thinking, and even exhibiting human emotions. The computer science field of intelligent systems, originally known as artificial intelligence AI , actually predates the first electronic computers in the s, although the term artificial intelligence was not coined until Three developments in computing in the early part of the 21st century—mobile computing, client-server computing , and computer hacking—contributed to the emergence of three new fields in computer science: platform-based development, parallel and distributed computing , and security and information assurance.
Project Whirlwind begins
Platform-based development is the study of the special needs of mobile devices, their operating systems, and their applications. Parallel and distributed computing concerns the development of architectures and programming languages that support the development of algorithms whose components can run simultaneously and asynchronously rather than sequentially , in order to make better use of time and space. Security and information assurance deals with the design of computing systems and software that protects the integrity and security of data, as well as the privacy of individuals who are characterized by that data.
Finally, a particular concern of computer science throughout its history is the unique societal impact that accompanies computer science research and technological advancements.
With the emergence of the Internet in the s, for example, software developers needed to address important issues related to information security, personal privacy, and system reliability. These concerns and others form the basis of social and professional issues of computer science, and they appear in almost all the other fields identified above. So, to summarize, the discipline of computer science has evolved into the following 15 distinct fields:. Computer science continues to have strong mathematical and engineering roots. For example, all undergraduate computer science majors must study discrete mathematics logic, combinatorics , and elementary graph theory.
Philosophy of science reading list
Many programs also require students to complete courses in calculus , statistics , numerical analysis , physics, and principles of engineering early in their studies. Computer science. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents.
www.lankute.lt/wp-includes/2020-02-04/2116.php Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Development of computer science Algorithms and complexity Architecture and organization Computational science Graphics and visual computing Human-computer interaction Information management Intelligent systems Networking and communication Operating systems Parallel and distributed computing Platform-based development Programming languages Security and information assurance Software engineering Social and professional issues.
Written By: Geneva G. Belford Allen Tucker. See Article History.
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The book completes its argument with the blossoming of logic and programming in the early s. It anticipates but does not discuss the rise of structured programming and logic programming, two topics that were shaped by the interaction of logicians and computer engineers. In his first discussion of the ENIAC, published in , Arthur Burks talked about many details of the machine before finally noting the logical [End Page ] foundation of the device, the fact that the "control circuits were compounded out of three very simple types of circuits: the electronic representations of the logical concepts of 'and,' 'or,' and 'not.
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